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Basic scientific knowledge and definitions
isDisease which is transmitted from human to human
calataccording to the dof the directivecs including genetically modified organisms, which can cause allergies, infections or toxic effectsvusesbcafungipspaaaeps. These organisms can be very different in size. aanimal cell cultures are also found in the group of biological agents, because they can potentially be infected with the mentioned agents.
ctransmissionwith respect to humans)faecaltransmissionsmear-infectiontransmission through the airdroplet c transmission during sexual intercourse)transmission over the skinat skin contactcy transmissionduring pregnancytransmission during birthtransmissionctransmission.
State or specific circumstances of the individual host, which lead to a different severity of the disease
cptPossibilities of the spread of a
a host population
fs are differentiated
iclocally and timely restrictedeg.
clocally unlimited, timely restrictedeg
csporadic returning disease in restricted areas egearly summere
netically modified osagentsorganismswhose genetic material has been changed through genetic processesin such a way, which can not occur under natural conditions such as breeding or recombinationordinance on the contained use
Contained systemsInstallations, that prohibit or diminish through physical barriers or through a combination of physical, chemical or biological barriers the contact with humans (incl. Workers) or with the environment.
xisPossibility to suppress a disease through a vaccinationIn general the effect is timely restricted and from time to time new vaccinations have to be done (everyyearyellow fevereveryyearinfluenza every yearThere are also active vaccinations, where the antigen stimulates the production of a specific antibodyeghtvaccinationsFor living vaccines attenuated organisms are used egyellow feverpvaccinesRecombinant vaccines are recombined in such a way with the help of molecular biology methods, that they are no longer virulent egOcvaccineDead vaccines contain destroyed organismsegwhooping-cough vaccinedevelopment are most recently also vaccines
ctransmissionTransmission through foodstuffs or drinking water; transmission through different, dead, contaminated objects or liquids; transmission through vectorsastransmission through humansegthrough hands of medical personaltransmission through contaminated vehicles or devices.
cPenetration of non-endogen pathogenslike bacteria, viruses and other organismsintake through food, environment or from other humansto the host organisms, reproduction and reaction of the host
Dose of infectionm dose necessary to elicit the diseaseegemiathrough respiratory tractcellsthroughdigestive tractcsdiarrhoea through the digestive tractcsfoot and mouth disease virusapprox.virus particles per cowvirus particle per sheep
Mode of infection/mode of transmissionWay of penetration of a pathogen into an organismChain of infectionReproduction of a biological agent in an organisms without disease symptomstegthrough insectsm host species with of the disease.
Spectrum of icsusceptibilitySum of species, which can be infected by a biological agent.A host species must be susceptible to the biological agent. Susceptibility can be made by physicalcharacteristics egrcscircumstances of life or individual factors egmental statec sex-linked dispositionage livestock breeding fro animal viruses etc
Time of incubationTime interval from the infection to the first symptoms of the diseaseegdaysfoot and mouth diseasedays
enesscusnessThe virulence of a pathogen is dependent of the invasiveness and infectiousness, i.e. of the penetration into and reproduction in the hostSome pathogens use receptors for the penetration into the host eginfects epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and induces whooping coughsto the epithelium of the intestine and causes cholera
halityNumber of the people that died of an illness with respect to he sum of all diseased people. The lethality rate is the ratio of the number of the deceased people with respect to the newly infected people (makes only sense with acute illnesses)egicvic
yNumber of sick people with respect to the whole population egetc
tyNumber of the people that died of an illness with respect to the whole population
Ø cityAbility of a biological agent to induce an illnesscal agents can be a pathogen for one organism but not for the otheregcertain animal pathogens like foot and mouth disease are totally harmless for humans
aceCertain biological agents can be resistant totraditional drugs, i.e. the drug have no effect eg-resistanttcis ca
cityCapability of surviving outside of the host organism egp usescan survive up to 100 days in waste waterssofalmost unlimited; foot and mouth disease viruses can survive up to 6 months in the environment etc.)
Ø cityDose-dependent characteristics of chemical substances and physical factors. Symptoms of certain pathogens egtdaare not solely dependent on the reproduction of the pathogen, but also on the toxins that they synthesize and secrete. Certain toxins can also be produced outside of the host organism, i.e. without a reproduction in the hostegmsof Atofum)Partly these toxins are very stable in the environment
ceThe virulence determines the severity of a diseaseCertain pathogens can loose their virulenceegated vaccine strainsThe virulence is determined by virulence factors such as invasiveness, infectiosity and toxicity.
isPathogens are transmitted from a
to a human (egrabiesplague
is made between the following zoonoses:
eczsTransmission through direct contact with secretion products egrabies
sseveral vertebratesintermediate- and end-hostsare necessary for the development of the pathogenegecccis
sTransmission through biotic vectorsegicsbatsrodentswith parallel reproduction of the pathogenegv
sTransmission through abiotic vectors like foodeghor
sCause no diseases for animals but do that for humans eg
Food sickness through microorganisms which are latently zoonotic
Terms of mc y
cEnd product of a PCRac cspecific DNA fragment of defined sizeapproxBase Pairs=which is defined by the two primers
Annealing of the primers at the hybridisation step of the PCR.
edefined part of the entire genome
ationMelting of the hydrogen bonds of the DNA double helix at temperatures above approx. . Single stranded DNA is produced first step in the hybridisation technique with DNA-probes or in the PCR
hsationForming of double-stranded DNA from single strands (probes) through base pairing of complementary sequences to the target DNA
concentrationThe absorption of DNA in an aqueous solution of atcorresponds to a ccofouble-stranded
probeSingle-stranded DNA which is connected to one or many marker molecules
step of thewith the help of p
The copy of a gene is named .Because of the mosaic-like structure of the eukaryotic genes, i.e. the presence of exons and introns, the primary transcripts also contain parts of sequences which do not code for a protein. The intron get exactly spliced out and the ends of the exons (protein coding sequences) are ligatedThe process of the generation of mature mRNA from primary transcripts is called splicing.
Ø e cControl reaction without any DNA template waterbmwith DNA of a species that will not react in the PCR
of an amplicon with a further pair of primers, which are located inside the amplicon of the first PCR The specificity and sensitivity is clearly enhanced with that approach
c acidsAliphatic macromolecules, which serve to the storage and transfer of the genetic informationThere is dc acid arc acid
element de or the synthesis of DNA
secific pieces of single-stranded DNA forahation
pchain reactionSpecific, exponential amplification of a piece of DNA from a mixture of desoxyribonucleic acids.
Circularmoleculeit contains the genetic elements which allow autonomous reproduction in bacteria or yeast cells.
e controlControl reaction of added target DNA (t of theof the desired species
Ø c acids.